Among criminals, profit is thought of narrowly as a gain in money without consideration for other kinds of losses.

One influential definition of stupidity is actions that benefit neither the person acting, nor the one acted upon. Of course this depends absolutely on the types of profit that are recognized.

The Yoruba recognize five kinds of profit:
  • Money
  • Bearing children
  • Good health
  • Living long
  • Overcoming obstacles

Jeff Buderer claims, after Akiwowo, that "when a community does not have those five Yoruba attributes of profit, it is not a fully functional community. Any system that denies this will not be productive, but instead over the long term create a hollow kind of productivity that lead will to increases in vice and addiction—an empty wealth that sustains today’s modern economy so well. Many in the Western world are now waking up to the realization that profit is not simply about balance sheets there is a movement to redefine the notion of profit and to overcome Wall Street’s assumption that one cannot do good and also profit."

Non-criminal "communities are held together through a system of mutually beneficial attributes and these must perpetuated for the community to continue to exist as vibrant and viable entity. Social problems begin to emerge as persistent and irreconcilable aspects of a society only when the society denies the five attributes of profit."

See also prosperity and styles of capital.