A geo-libertarian advocates land value tax and collective means of managing a natural commons around which a community coalesces, e.g. a lake or river. They constrast themselves from Royal Libertarians who claim the legitimacy of their land occupancy not from care of this commons or payment of this tax to maintain it, but rather from some deed of right in conquest.

The distinction, and this terminology, is due to Dan Sullivan, who observed in a series of papers that the Green and libertarian movements had roots in common, and that the subset of policies that they had in common were coherent. He also noted that Galt's Gulch, Ayn Rand's fictional utopia, was in practice run by a land value tax payable to an effective monarch who founded the valley community.

Under leader Blair T. Longley, the Marijuana Party of Canada is effectively geo-libertarian in orientation, though, in practical terms, the only policy that its candidates for office are obligated to share is to legalize marijuana completely. Land growing marijuana would accordingly be more valuable and land value tax would be greater, though direct taxes on marijuana itself (as for cigarettes and alcohol) are acceptable to many geo-libertarians as a means of paying for insurance against peripheral harms of those addictions.

A Green Party of Ontario faction also declares itself to be geo-libertarian although the party as a whole has in recent years highlighted an eco-capitalist ideology.

A main difference seems to be a willingness among eco-capitalists to use such instruments as emissions trading, carbon taxes, and so-called sin taxes on addictive substances or those that do environmental harm.

(adapted from source libertarianwiki)