Also known as genetic modification (GM), and gene splicing, genetic engineering describes a process of manipulating DNA in the genes in an organism, usually outside the organism's normal reproductive process. The aim is to introduce new characteristics in order to increase its usefulness, such as increasing the yield of a crop species. Genetic engineering is often found to be controversial on moral and ethical grounds, as well as a possible threat to biodiversity as it can create invasive species.
biotechnology the wider field which uses and controls living processes to meet human needs.
GMO food - reguarding controversies surrounding the growing, trade, and consumption of genetically modified animals and plants.
xenotransplants - the transplanting of tissues and organs from animals to humans.
stem cell research - research with develops the potiential of human stem cells.
gene therapy - using genetic engineering to treat disease
human cloning - a technology which owuld enable the asexual reproduction of human beings)