Almost all marine fisheries management in Canada is widely acknowledged to have been a complete failure, symbolized by the collapse of the North Atlantic cod stocks and most other fish stocks traditionally exploited. Other pressures include:

The use of ocean sanctuary methods to protect fish nursery areas is under-explored in Canada, but has proven effective elsewhere, including in the US.

In some European countries, an adaptive ecosystem-based and community-based approach to fisheries management applies:
  • reduce ocean habitat damage by appropriately matching the destructiveness of fishing gears to the vulnerability of marine habitats, banning draggers in particular
  • limiting or eliminating by-catch with gear rules
  • using the best available scientific information and local knowledge to design a system of ocean zones that share vulnerabilities and can be properly managed