A corporate tax has historically taken the form of a corporate income tax. However since corporations unlike human beings can change their corporate structure at will to avoid having "income" or landing it in any particular jurisdictions, it is doubtful whether the concept of "income" means the same thing as it does in an income tax on actual human beings.
Corporate tax of whatever form is ultimately paid by the consumer: it is passed through as higher prices. Cutting corporate tax does not always result in lower prices immediately, though market mechanics more or less guarantee that unless a cartel or a monopoly is in operation, it will lead to lower prices eventually as one market player undercuts all others. This may not be the case in markets where there is a natural monopoly such as a utility. In such situations there are however other ways to tax.
Alternatives to corporate income tax tried or proposed:
- corporate wealth tax on retained earnings only to encourage dividends to investors and bonus to employees instead of retaining cash in the control of corporate management
- corporate complexity tax proportional to how complex the organization is, thus, how likely to cheat the government, employees and eventually the investors
- strict reliance on consumption tax