Collaboration complements competition. No process exists that does not have collaborative and competitive elements. Evolutionary biology, for instance, studies the competition between genes not only to be propagated into the next generation, but also to be expressed in the current organism - competition occurs everywhere in the body and is a natural consequence of many similar organisms drawing on a common resource base. The collaborative balances that hold the body together are maintained by a relatively fragile system of hormones and other signals.

To seek collaboration rather than attempt to escalatecompetition is the essence of peaceful politics. Laws, communities, and civilizations are the product of meaningful and ongoing collaboration between peoples. These civilizations of course compete to a degree with each other, and all humans compete with non-humans for control of the natural capital of the biosphere. Accordingly, it is effective to think of competition as working on very small scales (like a game) and very large scales (like a whole planet), with collaboration being a mid-scale phenomenon associated with human cognition.

Open politics itself is largely achieved through collaborative writing. This is strongly encouraged as a best practice which leads to moreefficient civics and a collaboration ethic that affects the culture as a whole.