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closed system

A closed system is an isolated system having no interaction with an environment. (Von Bertalanffy, p.3,
Principia Cybernetica). It is insulated from any such environment or life form by a predictable set of definitions under the total control of system designers. A compiler is an example of a closed system.

Only a closed system can be a perfect system.

An open system by contrast interacts with some social or natural environment.