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Mediawiki and the public sphere

MediaWiki and the Public Sphere by Sabina Romlin, 2006, is the most comprehensive review of collaborative writing technology including theoretical analysis of Living Platform, Dkosopedia, Wikipedia, Wikicities, Slashdot, Well, SourceWatch and other projects.

It mentions theory of Jeremy Bentham, Clay Shirky, Jurgen Habermas, Gerald M. Weinberg, Clifford Adams, Craig Hubley, Steve Rapaport, Judith Martin, Judith Agler Hellman, Howard Rheingold, Andrew Ó Baoill, Richard Stallman, Peter Morville, Pete Ashdown, Rob Malda, Wes Boyd, Joan Blades, Magnus Manske, Antje Gimmler, Pieter Boeder, Douglas Kellner, Ward Cunninghma, Nincic Miroslav, Jonathan M. Feldman, the Swedish Pirate Party.

It mentions methods semantic networks, e-democracy, Robert's Rules of Order, cross-examination debate, consensus decision making, Open Space Technology, Open-space meeting, open space conference and usefulness of trolling.

The full paper in PDF format is now posted on Sabina Romlin's web page at http://www.romlin.com/

Abstract


How can we raise the level of public debate and make it a benefit to society? Habermas and his school make it clear that “the quality of society depends on our capacity to communicate, to debate and discuss”1. People’s inherent ability to discuss hasn’t changed much in many centuries, but the meeting systems that they use to keep discussions productive has made many leaps forward, some of which, I contend, are relevant to Habermas’ public sphere.

In this paper I’ll focus on how the public discourse can rise to a level that can help raise the quality of society, by debating and discussing using some of the latest social software, that is, software for internet-mediated meetings. I will use the term social software to refer to software to enables people to rendezvous, connect or collaborate through computer-mediated communication and to form online communities.2 I’ll use the term meeting system to refer to any system of rules that keeps a meeting orderly and productive, whether real-world or software based.

I will argue that an increasingly mature Internet is evolving new forms of social software, which are, if not already ideal, converging on Habermas’ ideal meeting systems. I contend that the software MediaWiki3 (used for Wikipedia and other similar sites) is the closest we have today to such a tool, and that it has, or will shortly have, the power necessary as a meeting system to improve the quality of society. As support I’ll include a Habermasian comparison to other meeting systems, both real-world and software-based. I’ll conclude that Habermas’ public sphere will soon be possible to mediate by appropriate tools on the Internet.
Introduction

I will present these arguments and ideas in following order: I start with the introduction to MediaWiki, a type of social software that I argue is the most democratic social software available today and show why it is democratic, in a Habermasian sense. Then I will describe the evolution of social software on the Internet and show why MediaWiki is excellent social software. I’ll review some selected principles of Habermas’ ideal meeting systems, and then proceed to the presentation of what I will present a comparison of the Habermasian principles used in meeting systems, featuring MediaWiki as the best example. Finally I’ll show how existing and new MediaWiki communities are already improving public discourse and the public sphere, and affecting the real world in positive ways.

The debate about the Internet is divided into Utopian and Dystopian standpoints, depending on how one view the opportunities and disadvantages it is creating.

Baylis and Smith 4 (2001:555) summarize the two sides by arguing for “Global flows of information create transparency but undermine privacy. Global flows of funds may fuel growth and investment but also undermine national policies and facilitate crime and corruption.” The impact Internet has on countries and their policymakers are divided in four parts by Baylis and Smith5 (2001:549).”First, there is more information available to governments; indeed they may have access to too much information, according to Baylis and Smith. Paralysis through information overload is a real danger to government and policy-makers. Second, global networks mean that decision-making can be centralized or decentralized. Third, global networks erode the monopoly of information in the hands of the governments. Fourth, global networks provide transparency to all and thereby accentuate the problem of dealing with global issues such as global warming.”

I intend to deal with the Internet, not on the level of information availability, but on the level of the virtual communities found on it. In this essay you will find two important concepts mention that is the basic of my theses, they are Social software and Meeting Systems. I argue for social software, which in my essay enables people to rendezvous, connect or collaborate through computer-mediated communication and to form online communities. I will also talk about meeting systems which in this paper are described as any systemic means of improving meetings, workshops or conferences. They are particularly important in consensus decision making and deliberative democracy. I will show how social software is developing into valid meeting systems.

For theory, I’ll be extensively using Jürgen Habermas’ theories about The Public Sphere, Communication and Discourse Ethics and The Theory of Communicative Action. They connect with the idea of defining the public sphere and will base my arguments on the Internet being a virtual public sphere in Habermas definition.

One of the first and most important concepts that Habermas tackles in his theories is the public sphere. Habermas main focus was on the disintegration of the public sphere in capitalist society. It is viewed as a time when people of learning came together in coffee houses and parlor rooms for the free and equal _expression of thought and ideas.

The public sphere is political. The public sphere is concerned with the evaluation of contemporary affairs and public policy According to Habermas; the public sphere has been transformed from its original content-focused openness, into something very hollow and superficial. Habermas is very concerned with the power and influence held by the mass media. He also argues that the society is not controlled by critical reason and the political choice of the public. 'Publicity' has become a commodity that governments and corporations use to protect their interests and spectacular image. The public has been depoliticized, and the public sphere deformed. Habermas recognizes an ever-increasing need for repoliticization and the reformation of the public sphere. These arguments are often used of critics to the Internet and those who fear that cooperation’s and the government has too much control over the public even in the virtual space. I will show examples of different types of Social software and Meetings system and argue that they are democratic and build on those values that will give more power to the user.
Methodology and Theory
Method

My research will be a combination of academic sources (for information and insight into International Relations Theory), essays and publications on the Internet regarding this subject, and direct correspondence interviews with internet-discourse pioneers, as well as my own 10 years of experience as a frequent user and contributor.

The selection process for literature was based on the correlation with the four subjects (social software, meeting systems, Habermasian discourse, and MediaWiki communities) but not solely concentrated on those issues. I have studied international relations books, articles from collections and online journals, and even self-published Internet essays and commentary, including Blogs. As a basis for framing the subject in international relations terms, I’ve used Baylis and Smith’s “The Globalization of World Politics”, an introduction to international relations. For understanding Habermas’ principles and how they have been updated lately, I’ve used papers by Kellner and Boeder, and their analysis of Habermas’ work. I have used articles about social software and meeting systems and compared the resulting principles and properties.

The evolution of the technology, and examples of different web sites using various technology solutions have been selected based on my own experience and interviews with my two informers6 and then further researched over the Internet.

I’m studying cases of both social software and meeting systems and the examples I have chosen to present in this essay follow an evolutionary perspective to today’s technology that follows my criteria of highly democratic values. Note that I do not include Blogs. Some proponents of electronic meeting systems have noted the recent emergence of the ‘weblog’ phenomenon, and have asked7 whether all weblogs, taken collectively (“the Blogosphere”) might constitute a “public sphere” in Habermas’ sense. I would say definitely not. In fact, I don’t think that weblogs, as they are currently implemented, even belong on the evolutionary tree leading to a virtual public sphere. I’ll give three important reasons, all supported in more detail by Ó Baoill8.

To summarize his arguments: The blogosphere is fundamentally elitist, since only well-linked bloggers (the A-list) are likely to be read by many and to be mentioned by other bloggers. The lack of incoming links acts as a barrier to entry. An unknown or new blogger can overcome this barrier only by social connection to existing A-list bloggers (which is another old-boy network in the making), or by corporate connection, or in occasional cases, by being so talented or lucky as to attract attention. All of these are external factors that work against Habermas’ principles of disregard of rank and universal access. In addition, the A-list is a small fraction of those in the world who would like to participate in the debate, and therefore is thinly spread throughout the world. Local issues will have few A-list bloggers to pick up the conversation, leading to a tendency to focus on global issues. Habermas requires a local inclusiveness as well, and local debates are easier to carry from the virtual to the face-to-face world. I consider the sphere of bloggers to be a nice counterbalance to the corporate-controlled media, since issues can be brought to light that would otherwise be repressed, but in the end just another form of global journalism. Like journalism, the Blogosphere is a set of analyses and opinions by people who are selected for their writing skill, time to devote to writing, and ability to build external social networks.

references



Baylis and Smith The Globalization of World Politics, Oxford University Press, 2001, p. 555

Baylis and Smith The Globalization of World Politics, Oxford University Press, 2001, p. 551

Baylis and Smith The Globalization of World Politics, Oxford University Press, 2001, p. 549

Baylis and Smith The Globalization of World Politics, Oxford University Press, 2001, p. 552

Baylis and Smith The Globalization of world politics, Oxford University Press 2001, p. 541

Feldman, Jonathan M. Extending Disarmament Through Economic Democracy, Taylor & Francis Ltd, 2000, p.207-208

Feldman, Jonathan M. Extending Disarmament Through Economic Democracy, Taylor & Francis Ltd, 2000, p.207

Feldman, Jonathan M. Public Choice, Foreign Policy Crises, and Military Spending from the book The Socio-Economics of Conversion From War To Peace Ed. Lloyd J. Dumas, M.E. Sharp, New York, 1995, p 251

Habermas Jürgen, The structural transformation of the public sphere, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989.

Gerald M. Weinberg, The Secrets of Consulting, Dorset House Publishing, 1986

“Habermas, Modernity and Law” edited by Mathieu Deflem, Sage Publications 1996

Hellman, Judith Adler, “Real and Virtual Chiapas: Magic Realism and the Left”, from Necessary and Unnecessary Utopias, Ed. L. Panitch and C. Leys, 1999, Merlin Press. P 178.

Martin, Judith: Miss Manners' Guide to Excruciatingly Correct Behavior. Freshly updated. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2005, page 215

Miroslav, Nincic, New perspectives on popular opinion and foreign policy, Journal of conflict Resolution, 36, 4, December 1992, p.782

Rethinking the Public Sphere, from The Phantom Public Sphere ed. Bruce Robbins, U of Minnesota Press, 1990, p 19

Rheingold, Howard The virtual community: Homesteading on the electronic frontier, New York: Harper Perennial 1994.
Internet

MediaWiki http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/MediaWiki Accessed Jan 2, 2006

Wikipedia.org definition of the word E-Democracy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-democracy Accessed Jan 11, 2006

Weblog’ http://elmine.wijnia.com/weblog/archives/001187.html Accessed Jan 5, 2006

Andrew Ó Baoill, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere/weblogs_and_the_public_sphere.html Accessed Jan 6, 2006

Habermas: http://caae.phil.cmu.edu/Cavalier/Forum/meta/background/HaberIntro.html Accessed Jan 6, 2006

E-democracy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-democracy Accessed Dec 29, 2005

Robert’s Rules of Order http://www.robertsrules.com/ Accessed Jan 2, 2006

Well.org http://www.well.org/ Accessed Jan 2, 2006

soc.politics.marxism http://www.usenet-replayer.com/opennews/soc.politics.marxism.html Accessed Jan 2, 2006

Google Groups, http://groups.google.com/ , has a searchable archive of all Usenet postings starting 1981

Wikiwiki http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?WelcomeVisitors Accessed Jan 2, 2006

Ward Cunningham http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?WardCunningham Accessed Jan 2, 2006

Semantic networks, or mind maps, are an “a graphic notation for representing knowledge in patterns of interconnected nodes and arcs”. Excellent examples at this page: http://www.jfsowa.com/pubs/semnet.htm Accessed Jan 4, 2006

Slashdot.org http://slashdot.org/ Accessed Jan 2, 2006

Rob Malda http://slashdot.org/faq/slashmeta.shtml#sm100 Accessed Jan 2, 2006

MoveOn.org http://www.actionforum.com/forum/?forum_id=266 Accessed Jan 2, 2006

Wes Boyd and Joan Blades, MoveOn.org http://www.moveon.org/about.html Accessed Jan 2, 2006

Richard Stallman, 1999. “The Free Universal Encyclopedia and Learning Resource” at http://www.gnu.org/encyclopedia/free-encyclopedia.html, Accessed Dec 24, 2005

Richard Stallman http://www.stallman.org/ Accessed Jan 2, 2006

Wikipedia http://en.Wikipedia.org/ Accessed Jan 2, 2006

MediaWiki http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/MediaWiki Accessed Jan 2, 2006

Clifford Adams http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Clifford_Adams Accessed Jan 2, 2006

Magnus Manske http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnus_Manske Accessed Jan 2, 2006

dKosopedia http://www.dkosopedia.com/index.php/Main_Page Accessed Jan 6, 2006

Now renamed “SourceWatch”, http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=SourceWatch Accessed Jan 6, Green Party Living Platform http://lp.greenparty.ca/tiki-index.php Accessed Jan 6, 2006

Pete Ashdown’s Utah Senate Campaign http://vote.peteashdown.org/wiki/index.php/Main_Page Accessed Jan 6, 2006

Douglas Kellner, 1997. "Intellectuals, the new public spheres, and techno–politics," at http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/courses/ed253a/newDK/intell.htm, Accessed Dec 24, 2005

Dr. Antje Gimmler http://caae.phil.cmu.edu/Cavalier/Forum/meta/background/agimmler.html Accessed Jan 5, 2006

Douglas Kellner http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/kellner/papers/habermas.htm Accessed Jan 2, 2006

The Swedish Pirate Party http://www.thelocal.se/article.php?ID=2791 Accessed Jan 2, 2006

Robert’s Rule of Order http://www.robertsrules.org/rror--00.htm Accessed Jan 2, 2006

MoveOn.org http://www.actionforum.com/general/faq.html Accessed Jan 2, 2006

Richard Stallman http://www.gnu.org/encyclopedia/free-encyclopedia.html Accessed Jan 2, 2006

WikiWiki http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?WikiDesignPrinciples Accessed Jan 2, 2006

Douglas Kellner, 1998. "New technologies, the welfare state, and the prospects for democratization," at http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/research/kellner/ntd.wd.html, Accessed Aug 24, 2005.

Pieter Boeder http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue10_9/boeder/ Accessed Dec 20, 2005.

Clay Shirky http://www.shirky.com/writings/group_user.html Accessed Jan 5, 2006. RECOMMENDED READING

Habermas’ heritage: The future of the public sphere in the network society by Pieter Boeder First Monday, volume 10, number 9, September 2005,
URL: http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue10_9/boeder/index.html) Accessed Jan 6, 2006

Bentham, Jeremy : The Panopticon Writings. Ed. Miran Bozovic London: Verso, 1995. p. 29-95Jan Fernback and Brad Thompson, 1995. "Virtual communities: Abort, retry, failure?" at http://www.well.com/user/hlr/texts/VCcivil.html, Accessed Aug 24, 2005

Clay Shirky http://www.shirky.com/writings/group_user.html Accessed Jan 5, 2006

Solve people problems with people solutions http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?AssumeGoodFaithLimitations Accessed Dec 25, 2005

Godwin’s Law http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Godwin's_law Accessed Dec 25, 2005

Google AdSense https://www.google.com/adsense/ Accessed Dec 25, 2005

Meaning of a Page” by Ross Mayfield http://www.corante.com/many/20030801.shtml Accessed Aug 13, Socialtext http://www.socialtext.com/, Accessed Jan 5, 2006

Peter Morville http://semanticstudios.com/publications/semantics/000011.php, Accessed Aug 28, 2003

Meaning of a Page” by Ross Mayfield http://www.corante.com/many/20030801.shtml Accessed Aug 13, 2003

Living Platform http://lp.greenparty.ca/ Accessed Dec 25, 2005

DKosopedia.com http://www.dkosopedia.com/index.php/Main_Page Accessed Dec 25, 2005

Pete Ashdown running for Democratic Utah Senator 76 http://peteashdown.org/wiki/index.php/Main_Page Accessed Dec 25, 2005

Wikicities http://www.wikicities.com/ Accessed Dec 25, 2005

Wikicities http://www.wikicities.com/wiki/Category:Politics Accessed Jan 6, 2006

Beyond voting http://www.wikicities.com/wiki/BeyondVoting Accessed Dec 25, 2005

International Development http://www.wikicities.com/wiki/International_Development Accessed Dec 25, 2005

World Citizen http://www.wikicities.com/wiki/World_Citizen Accessed Dec 25, 2005

Media manipulation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Media_manipulation accessed Jan 12, 2006

Wikipedia Talk page http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Media_manipulation accessed Jan 12, 2006

Form http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Manual_of_Style Accessed Jan 12, 2006

Content http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Guide_to_writing_better_articles Accessed Jan 12, 2006

NPV http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Neutral_point_of_view Accessed Jan 12, 2006

War on Iraq http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_on_Iraq Accessed 13 January, 2006 RECOMMENDED READING
Notes

Social software = “enables people to rendezvous, connect or collaborate through computer-mediated communication and to form online communities. Common to most definitions is the observation that some types of software seem to facilitate "bottom-up" community development, in which membership is voluntary, reputations are earned by winning the trust of other members, and the communities’ members themselves define the community’s mission and governance. The term also arose in the late nineties to describe software emerging out of alliances between programmers and social groups whose particular kinds describe software emerging out of alliances between programmers and social groups whose particular kinds of cultural intelligence are locked out of mainstream software. In this understanding of the term, the social is understood to also have a political and aesthetic sense, not simply acting as a kind of glue for a collection of normatively understood 'agents' whose inter-relations are formatted by software. What both positions share is an understanding that particular design decisions and the grammar of interactions made possible by each piece of software is socially significant. “ as defined by Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_software Accessed Jan 11, 2006

A meeting system is “any systemic means of improving meetings, workshops or conferences. They are particularly important in consensus decision making and deliberative democracy, but they have always been recognized as important to judicial procedure and parliamentary procedure, down to the level of the town meeting or below. There are many such systems, of which one of the best-known is probably Robert's Rules of Order, which is applied in parliamentary debate and corporate meetings in many English-speaking countries. Also well-known is the cross-examination debate applied in both criminal law and civil law. Much innovation in meeting systems has come from objection to these two basic models, notably due to the fact that both reflect an adversarial process. When used in political or economic contexts, meeting systems are very often associated with a voting system. When used in matchmaking or other sexual/romantic contexts, a meeting system is considered a dating system. These are discussed in other articles. Accordingly, this article will focus on the corporate and organizational uses of a formal meeting system of rules and limits of debate, and of decision. Examples of meeting systems: Robert's Rules of Order, cross-examination debate, consensus decision making, Open Space Technology, Open-space meeting and open space conference” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meeting_system 2006-01-02



1 Pieter Boeder http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue10_9/boeder/ Accessed 20 Dec 2005.



0 MediaWiki http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/MediaWiki Accessed 2 Jan, 2006

2 Social software = “enables people to rendezvous, connect or collaborate through computer-mediated communication and to form online communities. Common to most definitions is the observation that some types of software seem to facilitate "bottom-up" community development, in which membership is voluntary, reputations are earned by winning the trust of other members, and the communities’ members themselves define the community’s mission and governance. The term also arose in the late nineties to describe software emerging out of alliances between programmers and social groups whose particular kinds of cultural intelligence are locked out of mainstream software. In this understanding of the term, the social is understood to also have a political and aesthetic sense, not simply acting as a kind of glue for a collection of normatively understood 'agents' whose inter-relations are formatted by software. What both positions share is an understanding that particular design decisions and the grammar of interactions made possible by each piece of software is socially significant. “ As defined by Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_software Accessed Jan 11, 2006



3 MediaWiki http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/MediaWiki Accessed Jan 2, 2006



4 Source: Baylis and Smith The Globalization of World Politics, Oxford University Press, 2001, p. 555



5 Source: Baylis and Smith The Globalization of World Politics, Oxford University Press, 2001, p. 549



6 The both informers I’ve used have a long experience of the Internet, both as internet-discourse pioneers, users, and contributors: Steve Rapaport (steve@rapaport.com) and Craig Hubley (craighubleyca@yahoo.com)



7 ‘Weblog’ http://elmine.wijnia.com/weblog/archives/001187.html Accessed 5 Jan, 2006



8 Andrew Ó Baoill, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign http://blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere/weblogs_and_the_public_sphere.html Accessed 6 Jan, 2006



9 Source: http://caae.phil.cmu.edu/Cavalier/Forum/meta/background/HaberIntro.html Accessed Jan 6, 2006



10 Media manipulation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Media_manipulation accessed Jan 12, 2006



11 Wikipedia Talk page http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Media_manipulation accessed Jan 12, 2006



12 Gerald M. Weinberg, The Secrets of Consulting, Dorset House Publishing, 1986



13 Solve people problems with people solutions http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?AssumeGoodFaithLimitations Accessed 25 Dec, 2005



14 Godwin’s Law http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Godwin's_law Accessed 25 Dec, 2005



15 A meeting system is any systemic means of improving meetings, workshops or conferences. They are particularly important in consensus decision making and deliberative democracy, but they have always been recognized as important to judicial procedure and parliamentary procedure, down to the level of the town meeting or below. There are many such systems, of which one of the best-known is probably Robert's Rules of Order, which is applied in parliamentary debate and corporate meetings in many English-speaking countries. Also well-known is the cross-examination debate applied in both criminal law and civil law. Much innovation in meeting systems has come from objection to these two basic models, notably due to the fact that both reflect an adversarial process. When used in political or economic contexts, meeting systems are very often associated with a voting system. When used in matchmaking or other sexual/romantic contexts, a meeting system is considered a dating system. These are discussed in other articles. Accordingly, this article will focus on the corporate and organizational uses of a formal meeting system of rules and limits of debate, and of decision. Examples of meeting systems: Robert's Rules of Order, cross-examination debate, consensus decision making, Open Space Technology, Open-space meeting and open space conference (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meeting_system) 2006-01-02



16 E-democracy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-democracy Accessed Dec 29, 2005



17 Robert’s Rules of Order http://www.robertsrules.com/ Accessed Jan 2, 2006



18 Well.org http://www.well.org/ Accessed Jan 2, 2006



19 soc.politics.marxism http://www.usenet-replayer.com/opennews/soc.politics.marxism.html Accessed Jan 2, 2006



20 Google Groups, http://groups.google.com/ , has a searchable archive of all Usenet postings starting 1981.



21 Wikiwiki http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?WelcomeVisitors Accessed Jan 2, 2006



22 Ward Cunningham http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?WardCunningham Accessed Jan 2, 2006



23 Semantic networks, or mind maps, are an “a graphic notation for representing knowledge in patterns of interconnected nodes and arcs”. Excellent examples at this page: http://www.jfsowa.com/pubs/semnet.htm Accessed Jan 4, 2006



24 Slashdot.org http://slashdot.org/ Accessed Jan 2, 2006



25 Rob Malda http://slashdot.org/faq/slashmeta.shtml#sm100 Accessed Jan 2, 2006



26 MoveOn.org http://www.actionforum.com/forum/?forum_id=266 Accessed Jan 2, 2006



27 Wes Boyd and Joan Blades, MoveOn.org http://www.moveon.org/about.html Accessed Jan 2, 2006



28 Richard Stallman, 1999. “The Free Universal Encyclopedia and Learning Resource” at http://www.gnu.org/encyclopedia/free-encyclopedia.html, Accessed Dec 24, 2005



29 Richard Stallman http://www.stallman.org/ Accessed Jan 2, 2006



30 Wikipedia http://en.Wikipedia.org/ Accessed Jan 2, 2006



31 MediaWiki http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/MediaWiki



32 Clifford Adams http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Clifford_Adams Accessed Jan 2, 2006



33 Magnus Manske http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnus_Manske Accessed Jan 2, 2006



34 Form http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Manual_of_Style Accessed Jan 12, 2006



35 Content http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Guide_to_writing_better_articles Accessed Jan 12, 2006



36 dKosopedia http://www.dkosopedia.com/index.php/Main_Page Accessed Jan 6, 2006



37 Now renamed “SourceWatch”, http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=SourceWatch Accessed Jan 6, 2006



38 Green Party Living Platform http://lp.greenparty.ca/tiki-index.php Accessed Jan 6, 2006



39 Pete Ashdown’s Utah Senate Campaign http://vote.peteashdown.org/wiki/index.php/Main_Page Accessed Jan 6, 2006



40 Douglas Kellner, 1997. "Intellectuals, the new public spheres, and techno–politics," at http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/courses/ed253a/newDK/intell.htm, Accessed Dec 24, 2005



41 Dr. Antje Gimmler http://caae.phil.cmu.edu/Cavalier/Forum/meta/background/agimmler.html Accessed Jan 5, 2006



42 Martin, Judith. Miss Manners' Guide to Excruciatingly Correct Behavior. Freshly updated. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2005, page 215



43 Clay Shirky http://www.shirky.com/writings/group_user.html Accessed 5 Jan 2006. RECOMMENDED READING



44 Habermas’ heritage: The future of the public sphere in the network society by Pieter Boeder First Monday, volume 10, number 9, September 2005,
URL: http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue10_9/boeder/index.html) Accessed Jan 6, 2006



45 NPVhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Neutral_point_of_view Accessed Jan 12, 2006



46 War on Iraq http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_on_Iraq Accessed 13 January, 2006 RECOMMENDED READING



47 Howard Rheingold, The virtual community: Homesteading on the electronic frontier, New York: Harper Perennial 1994.



48 Bentham, Jeremy The Panopticon Writings. Ed. Miran Bozovic London: Verso, 1995. p. 29-95



49 Jan Fernback and Brad Thompson, 1995. "Virtual communities: Abort, retry, failure?" at http://www.well.com/user/hlr/texts/VCcivil.html, Accessed 24 Aug, 2005



50 Clay Shirky http://www.shirky.com/writings/group_user.html Accessed 5 Jan, 2006



51 Judith Adler Hellman, “Real and Virtual Chiapas: Magic Realism and the Left”, from Necessary and Unnecessary Utopias, Ed. L. Panitch and C. Leys, 1999, Merlin Press. P 178.



52 Rethinking the Public Sphere, from The Phantom Public Sphere ed. Bruce Robbins, U of Minnesota Press, 1990, p 19



53 Jürgen Habermas, The structural transformation of the public sphere, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989.



54 Douglas Kellner http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/kellner/papers/habermas.htm Accessed Jan 2, 2006



55 The Swedish Pirate Party http://www.thelocal.se/article.php?ID=2791 Accessed Jan 2, 2006



56 Source this part of the text is based on the “Habermas, Modernity and Law” edited by Mathieu Deflem, Sage Publications 1996



57 Robert’s Rule of Order http://www.robertsrules.org/rror--00.htm Accessed Jan 2, 2006



58 MoveOn.org http://www.actionforum.com/general/faq.html Accessed Jan 2, 2006



59 Richard Stallman http://www.gnu.org/encyclopedia/free-encyclopedia.html Accessed Jan 2, 2006



60 WikiWiki http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?WikiDesignPrinciples Accessed Jan 2, 2006



61 Douglas Kellner, 1998. "New technologies, the welfare state, and the prospects for democratization," at http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/research/kellner/ntd.wd.html, Accessed 24 Aug, 2005.



62 Pieter Boeder http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue10_9/boeder/ Accessed 20 Dec 2005.



63 Google AdSense https://www.google.com/adsense/ Accessed 25 Dec, 2005



64 Meaning of a Page” by Ross Mayfield http://www.corante.com/many/20030801.shtml Accessed 13 Aug, 2003



65 Socialtext http://www.socialtext.com/, Accessed 5 Jan, 2006



66 Peter Morville http://semanticstudios.com/publications/semantics/000011.php, Accessed 28 Aug, 2003



67 Meaning of a Page” by Ross Mayfield http://www.corante.com/many/20030801.shtml Accessed 13 Aug, 2003



68 Living Platform http://lp.greenparty.ca/ Accessed 25 Dec, 2005



69 dKosopedia.com http://www.dkosopedia.com/index.php/Main_Page Accessed 25 Dec, 2005



70 Pete Ashdown running for Democratic Utah Senator http://peteashdown.org/wiki/index.php/Main_Page Accessed 25 Dec, 2005



71 Wikicities http://www.wikicities.com/ Accessed 25 Dec, 2005



72 Wikicities http://www.wikicities.com/wiki/Category:Politics Accessed 6 Jan, 2006



73 Beyond Voting http://www.wikicities.com/wiki/BeyondVoting Accessed 25 Dec, 2005



74 International Development http://www.wikicities.com/wiki/International_Development Accessed 25 Dec, 2005



75 World Citizen http://www.wikicities.com/wiki/World_Citizen Accessed 25 Dec, 2005



76 Source: Feldman, Jonathan M. Extending Disarmament Through Economic Democracy, Taylor & Francis Ltd, 2000, p.207-208