Canada has three levels of government: the federal Government of Canada, that of the provinces of Canada, and the municipal governments that, constitutionally, are defined entirely by, and report entirely to, the provinces.

The structure of these governments is largely a holdover from colonial governments of 1840-1905. The most recent of them has not been modernized in more than a century, the least recent contain many colonial holdovers and biases.

In addition, there are trade bloc level agreements: NAFTA and potentially FTAA, and the global governance represented by the WTO and UN.

As of 2005, there are numerous proposals to change this structure including:

The actual governance function, which governments do not differently from other organizations, has also come under scrutiny, with recent issues including: