Biodiversity or biological diversity is the diversity of life forms and living systems. Ecologists treat biological diversity as existing at three main levels:
  • genetic (diversity of genes); - see genetic diversity
  • taxonomic (diversity of taxa such as species);
  • ecosystemic (diversity of biotopes such as ponds, forests, and coral reefs).

increase, decrease

All three levels of biodiversity are decreased by deforestation which destroys species before they are catalogued or known. Any extinction decreases local and may (if the species does not exist elsewhere) also decreases global biodiversity. See measure biodiversity.


The permaculture movement claims to be able to increase local biodiversity by restoring local ecological balances, maximize edges between different ecosystems. See also wild garden.

invasive species

Invasive species present special challenges as they have never had interaction with the local wildlife and accordingly may devastate it. They may be or bring a disease, for instance, that local species have no defense against. Or they may disrupt a food chain very directly. See biosecurity on this issue.

relation to money

If biodiversity has value it isn't seen in money, at least not under US dollar hegemony. Some schemes of monetary reform propose a role for measured global biodiversity something like a reserve currency, in which the goal of the monetary system is to achieve steady increase in biodiversity both locally and globally. Relating biodiversity to inflation, the price of life, price of Earth, and so on. This requires changes to banking reserve rules to value biodiverse ecosystems over a monoculture.


Some political movements cite biodiversity as a primary goal, notably the ecology movement and its deep ecology branch. A Green Party always lists ecological wisdom among its goals, and a Green constitution makes at least passing mention of biodiversity and prevention of species extinction as a primary goal of the political party. This does not imply animal rights, vegan lifestyles, etc., though some Green Parties do encourage those too.

relying on locals to preserve local uniqueness

The bioregional democracy model seeks to preserve biodiversity by empowering those closest to unique ecosystems to learn and preserve them.

ancient balances

This goal is often related to aboriginal issues as the cultures and languages of First Nations came into being in direct contact with unique ecosystems to which they adapted. However, that is not to say that those peoples never reduced biodiversity resume. Biologists agree that megafauna in North America such as the sabre-tooth tiger, mammoth, two species of North American elephant, the giant bear and giant sloth were all eradicated by early Americans.

Most trolls wish to bring those species back, with prohibitions against hunting them, but not against them hunting humans or stomping up suburbs or Wal-Mart. An ecological balance similar to Banff, or at least demonstrating creativity or perhaps some psychodiversity regarding the human role on Earth.

These large species had played a role in maintaining biodiversity by knocking over trees, leaving giant piles of dung, fighting and leaving corpses around, but unlike humans not removing it dissertation, burning it or paving over it. It has been postulated by some anthropologists that a reason for ecological awareness college essay in native religions is that lifestyles had to drastically change when the large keystone species disappeared and natives starved and otherwise suffered until they discovered a new balance in which they, as the new keystone species, could play a part.