Almost all marine fisheries management in Canada is widely acknowledged to have been a complete failure, symbolized by the collapse of the North Atlantic? cod? stocks and most other fish stock?s traditionally exploited. Other pressures include:
  • Traditional resource rights?, of subsistence fisher?s, increasing pressures on fisheries
  • Poor coastal management? and ocean dumping? causing ocean pollution?
  • Fishing in international waters being immune to many forms of regulation.
  • Sub-ocean drilling? causing oil spill?s
  • sub-ocean mining? and prospecting doing harm to ocean mammals
  • ocean acidity? rising due to carbon dioxide

The use of ocean sanctuary methods to protect fish nursery? areas is under-explored in Canada, but has proven effective elsewhere, including in the US.

In some European countries, an adaptive ecosystem-based and community-based approach to fisheries management applies:
  • reduce ocean habitat? damage by appropriately matching the destructiveness of fishing gear?s to the vulnerability of marine habitats, banning draggers in particular
  • limiting or eliminating by-catch? with gear rules
  • using the best available scientific information and local knowledge to design a system of ocean zones that share vulnerabilities and can be properly managed

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